The birth of biopolitics
The birth of biopolitics

lectures at the Collè€ge de France, 1978-1979

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via David Lebow on 9/6/2019, 10:14:26 PM

excerpt The art of government must therefore fix its rules and rationalize its way of doing things by taking as its objective the bringing into being of what the state should be. 4 on 9/14/2019, 5:29:02 PM

excerpt When you allow the market to function by itself according to its nature, according to its natural truth, if you like, it permits the formation of a certain price which will be called, metaphorically, the true price, and will sometimes be called the just price, but which no longer has any connotation of justice. It is a certain price that fluctuates around the value of the product. 31 on 9/14/2019, 6:54:19 PM

excerpt the market must be that which reveals something like a truth. 32 on 9/14/2019, 6:55:37 PM

excerpt the constitution of the market as the agency of verification. 33 on 9/14/2019, 6:59:00 PM

excerpt What is the utility value of government and all actions of government in a society where exchange determines the value of all things? 46 on 9/14/2019, 7:03:01 PM

excerpt What sense is there in saying, or simply wondering, if an administrative monarchy like that of France in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, with all its big, heavy, unwieldy and inflexible machinery, with its statutory privileges which had to be recognized, with the arbitrariness of decisions left of different people, with all the short comings of its instruments, allowed more or less freedom than a regime which is liberal, let's say, but takes on the task of continuouslt and effectively taking charge of individuals and their well-being, health, work their way of behaving, and even dying, etcetera? 62, on 9/14/2019, 7:09:35 PM

authored-by Michel Foucault on 9/14/2019, 7:14:32 PM

excerpt That is to say, we ask what rules it adopts for itself, how it offsets compensating mechanisms, how it calculates the mechanisms of measurement it has installed within its governmentality. 93. on 9/14/2019, 7:24:24 PM

note Interesting parallels between the Frieburg School and the Frankfurt School. on 9/14/2019, 7:26:45 PM

excerpt This is the curious closeness and parallels between what we call the Freiburg School or ordoliberals and their neighbors, as it were, the Frankfurt School. ... What I mean is that Max Weber was a starting point for both schools and we could say, to schematize drastically, that he functioned in early twentieth century Germany as the person who, broadly speaking, displaced Marx's problem. If Marx tried to define and analyze what could be summed up as the contradictory logic of capital, Max Weber's problem ... [is] the problem of the irrational rationality of capitalist society. 105 on 9/14/2019, 7:31:42 PM

excerpt Capitalism produces the mass. on 9/14/2019, 7:34:30 PM

references Werner Sombart on 9/14/2019, 7:35:39 PM

excerpt In other words, instead of accepting a free market defined by the state and kept as it were under state supervision - which was, in a way, the initial formula of liberalism: let us establish a place of economic freedom and let us circumscribe it by a state that will supervise it - the ordoliberals say we should completely turn the formula around and adopt the free market as organizing and regulating principle of the state, from the start of its existence to the last form of its interventions. In other words: a state under the supervision of the market rather than a market supervised by the state. 116 on 9/14/2019, 7:39:58 PM

excerpt Can the market really have the power of formalization for both the state and society? 117 on 9/14/2019, 7:41:43 PM

note Chapter 5 has been the most useful so far. Takes about how the market has become a model of governance. on 9/14/2019, 7:44:00 PM

excerpt The problem of neo-liberalism is rather how the overall exercise of political power can be modeled on the principles of a market economy. 131 on 9/14/2019, 7:47:54 PM

references An inquiry into the principles of the good society. on 9/14/2019, 7:49:48 PM

excerpt It is a curious book because, on the one hand, it takes up the themes of classical liberalism in the form of pure and simple reactivation, but, on the other hand, in a number of respects it also presents elements that form part of neo-liberalism. 132 on 9/14/2019, 7:51:29 PM

excerpt Monopolu has a disturbing effect inasmuch as it acts on prices, that is to say, on the regulatory mechanism of the economy. 136 on 9/14/2019, 7:54:24 PM

quote Inequality is the same for all. on 9/14/2019, 7:56:43 PM

excerpt Basically, Hayek says, it is very simple. The Rule of Law, or formal economic legislation, is quite simply the opposite of a plan. It is the opposite of planning. What is a plan? An economic plan is something which has an aim: the explicit pursuit of growth, for example, or the attempt to develop a certain type of consumption or a certain type of investment, or reducing the gap between the earnings of different social classes. In short, a plan means the adoption of precise and definite economic ends. 172 on 9/14/2019, 8:07:36 PM

excerpt So in a plan, public authorities play the role of decision maker. ... That is to say , the great state decision maker is someone who has a clear awareness of all the economic processes. He is the universal subject in the order of the economy. This is a plan. 172 on 9/14/2019, 8:09:44 PM

quote [A plan] "shows how the resources of society must be consciously directed in order to achieve a particular end. 173 on 9/14/2019, 8:11:09 PM

references Karl Polanyi on 9/14/2019, 8:13:42 PM

excerpt The very organization of completition, and the dynamic of competition, will call for, and necessarily so, an increasingly monopolistic organization. 177 on 9/14/2019, 8:14:57 PM

quote a system in which a central authority will be able to control the means of production and the production itself. on 9/14/2019, 8:16:07 PM

excerpt Smith's invisible hand would be something like Malebranche's God, whose intelligible extension would not be occupied by lines, surfaces, and bodies, but by merchants, markets, ships, carriages and roads. A consequence of this would be the idea that there is an essential transparency in this economic world and that if the totality of the process eludes each economic man, there is however a point where the whole is completely transparent to a sort of gaze of someone whose invisible hand, following the logic of this gaze and what it sees, draws together the threads of all these dispersed interests. 279 on 9/14/2019, 8:33:59 PM

excerpt Being in the dark and the blindness of all economic agents are absolutely necessary. 279 on 9/14/2019, 8:36:54 PM

excerpt It is invisibility which means that no economic agent should or can pursue the collective good. 280 on 9/14/2019, 8:37:27 PM

excerpt Economic rationality is not only surrounded by, but founded upon the unknowability of the totality of the process. 282 on 9/14/2019, 8:40:29 PM

note Chapter 11 on the Invisible Hand and the incompatibility between the totalizing unity of the sovereign and the unknowability of the market is also interesting. on 9/14/2019, 8:46:49 PM

references Physiocracy on 9/14/2019, 8:48:29 PM

Seeing like a market cites The birth of biopolitics on 11/12/2019, 2:47:42 AM

The Invisible Hand of Friedrich Hayek: Submission and Spontaneous Order references The birth of biopolitics on 2/22/2020, 1:09:24 AM